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Unintended Effects of Genetic Manipulation

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Project Director:  Craig Holdrege

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Bibliography

This bibliography contains all the research articles used in our reports on unintended effects of genetic manipulation. To browse and search those reports, click here. To see a bibliography of overview articles and books on unintended effects, click here.


Abdeen, A., and B. Miki (2009). "The Pleiotropic Effects of the bar Gene and Glufosinate on the Arabidposis Transcriptome," Plant Biotechnology Journal, vol. 7, pp. 266-82. To see our report on this study, click here.

Adams, N. R., and J. R. Briegel (2005). "Multiple Effects of an Additional Growth Hormone Gene in Adult Sheep," Journal of Animal Science vol. 83, pp. 1868-74. To see our report on this study, click here.

Adams, N. R., J. R. Briegel, K. A. Ward (2002). "The Impact of a Transgene for Ovine Growth Hormone on the Performance of Two Breeds of Sheep," Journal of Animal Science vol. 80, pp. 2325-33. To see our report on this study, click here.

Aguilera, M., M. Querci, B. Balla, A. Prospero et al. (2008). "A Qualitative Approach for the Assessment of the Genetic Stability of the MON810 Trait in Commercial Seed Maize Varieties," Food Analytical Methods vol. 1, pp. 252-8. To see our report on this study, click here.

Anand, A., T. Zhou, H. N. Trick, B. S. Gill, et al. (2003). "Greenhouse and Field Testing of Transgenic Wheat Plants Stably Expressing Genes for Thaumatin-like Protein, Chitinase and Glucanase against Fusarium graminearum," Journal of Experimental Biology Vol. 54, pp. 1101-11. To see our report on this study, click here.

Atkinson R. G., R. Schröder, I. Hallett, D. Cohen et al. 2002. "Overexpression of Polygalacturonase in Transgenic Apple Trees Leads to a Range of Novel Phenotypes Involving Changes in Cell Adhesion," Plant Physiology vol. 129, pp. 122-33. To see our report on this study, click here.

Baldarasse, H., D. K. Hockley, M. Dore, E. Brochu et al. (2008). "Lactation Performance of Transgenic Goats Expressing Recombinant Human Butyryl-Cholinesterase in the Milk," Transgenic Research vol. 17, pp. 73-84. To see our report on this study, click here.

Bernal, J. S. and M. Sétamou (2003). "Fortuitous Antixenosis in Transgenic Sugarcane: Antibiosis-Expressing Cultivar is Refractory to Ovipositing Herbivore Pests," Environmental Entomology vol. 32, pp. 886-94. To see our report on this study, click here.

Birch, A. N. E., I. E. Geoghegan, D. W. Griffiths, and J. W. McNicol (2002). "The Effect Of Genetic Transformations for Pest Resistance on Foliar Solanidine-Based Glycoalkaloids of Potato (Solanum tuberosum)," Annals of Applied Biology vol 140, pp. 143-9. To see our report on this study, click here.

Blechl, A. and O. Anderson (1996). "Expression of a Novel High-Molecular-Weight Glutenin Subunit Gene in Transgenic Wheat," Nature Biotechnology 14: 875-9. To see our report on this study, click here.

Bohmert, K., I. Balbo, J. Kopka, V. Mittendorf et al. (2000). "Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants can Accumulate Polyhydroxybutyrate to Up to 4% of Their Fresh Weight," Planta vol. 211, pp. 841-45. To see our report on this study, click here.

Bregitzer, P., A. E. Blechl, D. Fiedler, J. Lin, et al. (2006). "Changes in High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunit Composition Can Be Genetically Engineered without Affecting Wheat Agronomic Performance," Crop Science vol. 46, pp. 1553-63. To see our report on this study, click here.

Bregitzer, P., L. D. Cooper, P. M. Hayes, P. G. Lemaux et al. (2007). "Viability and bar Expression are Negatively Correlated in Oregon Wolfe Barley Dominant Hybrids," Plant Biotechnology Journal vol. 5, pp. 381-8. To see our report on this study, click here.

Brooks, D. R., D. A. Bohan, G. T. Champion, A. J. Haughton et al. (2003). "Invertebrate Responses to the Management of Genetically Modified Herbicide-Tolerant and Conventional Spring Crops. II. Within-Field Epigeal and Aerial Arthropods," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B vol. 358, pp. 1863-77. To see our report on this study, click here.

Cadeira, A. L. and S. O. Duke (2006). "The Current Status and Environmental Impacts of Glyphosate-Resistant Crops: A Review," Journal of Environmental Quality vol. 35, pp. 1633-58. To see our report on this study, click here.

Campo, S., S. Manrique, J. Garcia-Martinez, and B. San Segundo (2008). "Production of Cecropin A in Transgenic Rice Plants Has an Impact on Host Gene Expression," Plant Biotechnology Journal vol. 6, pp. 585-608. To see our report on this study, click here.

Chen, D., G. Ye, C. Yang, Y. Chen et al. (2005). "The Effects of High Temperature on the Insecticidal Properties of Bt Cotton," Environmental and Experimental Botany vol. 53, pp. 333-42. To see our report on this study, click here.

Chen, L. J., D. S. Lee, Z. P. Song, H. S. Suh, et al. (2004). "Gene Flow from Cultivated Rice (Oryza sativa) to its Weedy and Wild Relatives," Annals of Botany vol. 93, pp. 67-73. To see our report on this study, click here.

Coca, M., G. Penas, J. Gomez, S. Campo et al. (2006). "Enhanced Resistance to the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe grisea Conferred by Expression of a cecropin A Gene in Transgenic Rice," Planta vol. 223, pp. 392-406. To see our report on this study, click here.

Collins, C., P. Eason, F. Dunshea, T. Higgins, and R. King (2006). "Starch But Not Protein Digestibility is Altered in Pigs Fed Transgenic Peas Containing Alpha-Amylase Inhibitor," J. Sci. Food Agric. vol. 86, pp. 1894-9. To see our report on this study, click here.

Deitch, E. J., G. L. Fletcher, L. H. Petersen et al. (2006). "Cardiorespiratory Modifications, and Limitations, in Post-Smolt Growth Hormone Transgenic Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar," Journal of Experimental Biology vol. 209, pp. 1310-25. To see our report on this study, click here.

Devlin, R. H., C. A. Biagi, T. Y. Yesaki (2004). "Growth, Viability, and Genetic Characteristics of GH Transgenic Coho Salmon Strains," Aquaculture vol. 236, pp. 607-32. To see our report on this study, click here.

Devlin, R. H., T. Y. Yesaki, E. M. Donaldson, and C.-L. Hew (1995). "Transmission and Phenotypic Effects of an Antifreeze/GH Gene Construct in Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)," Aquaculture vol. 137, pp. 161-9. To see our report on this study, click here.

D'Hertefeldt, T., R. B. Jorgensen, and L. B. Pettersson (2008). "Long-term Persistence of GM Oilseed Rape in the Seedbank," Biology Letters vol. 4, pp. 314-17. To see our report on this study, click here.

Dinel, H., M. Schnitzer, M. Saharinen, F. Meloche et al. (2003). "Extractable Soil Lipids and Microbial Activity as Affected by Bt and Non Bt Maize Grown on a Silty Clay Loam Soil," Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part B vol. B38 pp. 211-19. To see our report on this study, click here.

Ebert, K. M., T. E. Smith, F. C. Buonomo, E. W. Overstrom et al. (1990). "Porcine Growth Hormone Gene Expression from Viral Promoters in Transgenic Swine," Animal Biotechnology vol. 1, pp. 145-59. To see our report on this study, click here.

Eskelin, K., A. Ritala, T. Suntio, S. Blumer et al. (2009). "Production of a Recombinant Full-Length Collagen Type I Alpha-1 and of a 45-kDa Collagen Type I Alpha-1 Fragment in Barley Seeds," Plant Biotechnology Journal vol. 7, pp. 657-72. To see our report on this study, click here.

Forsbach, A., D. Schubert, B. Lechtenberg, M. Gils et al. (2003). "A Comprehensive Characterization of Single-Copy T-DNA Insertions in the Arabidopsis thaliana Genome," Plant Molecular Biology vol. 52, pp. 161-76. To see our report on this study, click here.

Fray, R., A. Wallace, P. Fraser, D. Valero et al (1995). "Constitutive Expression of a Fruit Phytoene Synthase Gene in Transgenic Tomatoes Causes Dwarfism by Redirecting Metabolites from Gibberellin Pathway," The Plant Journal vol. 8, pp. 693-701. To see our report on this study, click here.

Friesen, L. F., A. G. Nelson, and R. C. van Acker (2003). "Evidence of Contamination of Pedigreed Canola (Brassica napus) Seedlots in Western Canada with Genetically Engineered Herbicide Resistance Traits," Agronomy Journal vol. 95, pp. 1342-7. To see our report on this study, click here.

Gertz, J.M., W.K. Vencill, and N.S. Hill (1999). "Tolerance of Transgenic Soybean (Glycine max) to Heat Stress." In: The 1999 Brighton Conference: Weeds. Farnham, Surrey, UK: The Council, pp. 835-40. To see our report on this study, click here.

Gibbons, D. W., D. A. Bohan, P. Rothery, R. C. Stuart et al. (2006). "Weed Seed Resources for Birds in Fields with Contrasting Conventional and Genetically Modified Herbicide-Tolerant Crops," Proceedings of the Royal Society B vol. 273, pp. 1921-28. To see our report on this study, click here.

Giddings, G., L. Mytton, M. Griffiths, A. McCarthy et al. (1997). "A Secondary Effect of Transformation in Rhizobium leguminosarum for Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies tenebrionis delta-endotoxin (cryIIIA) Genes. Part 2," Theor Appl Genet vol. 97, pp. 1062-8. To see our report on this study, click here.

Giddings, G., L. Mytton, L. Taylor, S. Thomas et al. (2000). "A Secondary Effect of Transformation in Rhizobium leguminosarum for Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies tenebrionis delta-endotoxin (cryIIIA) Genes. Part 2," Theor Appl Genet vol. 100, pp. 820-3. To see our report on this study, click here.

Heard, M. S., C. Hawes, G. T. Champion, S. J. Clark et al. (2003). "Weeds in Fields with Contrasting Conventional and Genetically Modified Herbicide-Tolerant Crops. I. Effects on Abundance and Diversity," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B vol. 358, pp. 1819-32. To see our report on this study, click here.

Heuberger, S., C. Yafuso, G. Degrandi-Hoffman, B. E. Tabashnik et al. (2008). "Outcrossed Cottonseed and Adventitious Bt Plants in Arizona Refuges," Environmental Biosafety Research vol. 7, pp. 87-96. To see our report on this study, click here.

Heuberger, S., C. Ellers-Kirk, C. Yafuso, A. J. Gassmann et al. (2008). "Effects of Refuge Contamination by Transgenes on Bt Resistance in Pink Bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)," Journal of Economic Entomology vol. 101, pp.504-14. To see our report on this study, click here.

Hill, J. A., A. Kiessling, and R. H. Devlin (2000). "Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) Transgenic for a Growth Hormone Gene Construct Exhibit Increased Rates of Muscle Hyperplasia and Detectable Levels of Differential Gene Expression," Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences vol. 57, pp. 939-50. To see our report on this study, click here.

Horvath, H., L.G. Jensen, O.T. Wong, E. Kohl et al. (2001). "Stability of Transgene Expression, Field Performance and Recombination Breeding of Transformed Barley Lines," Theor Appl Genet vol. 102, pp. 1-11. To see our report on this study, click here.

King, C. A., L. C. Purcell, and E. D. Vories (2001). "Plant growth and Nitrogenase Activity of Glyphosate-tolerant Soybean in Response to Foliar Glyphosate Applications," Agronomy Journal vol. 93, pp. 179-86. click here.

Krupke, C., P. Marquardt, W. Johnson, S. Weller et al. (2009). "Volunteer Corn Presents New Challenges for Insect Resistance Management," Agronomy Journal vol. 101, pp. 797-9. click here.

Larson, R. L., A. L. Hill, A. Fenwick, A. R. Kniss et al. (2006). "Influence of Glyphosate on Rhizoctonia and Fusarium Root Rot in Sugar Beet," Pest Management Science vol. 62, pp. 1182-92. To see our report on this study, click here.

Le Gall, G., I. Colquhoun, A. Davis, G. Collins et al. (2003). "Metabolite Profiling of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) using 1H NMR Spectroscopy as a Tool to Detect Potential Unintended Effects Following a Genetic Modification," J. Agric. Food Chem. vol. 51, pp. 2447-56. To see our report on this study, click here.

Li, X., B. Liu, S. Heia, D. Liu et al. (2009). "The Effect of Root Exudates from Two Transgenic Insect-Resistant Cotton Lines on the Growth of Fusarium oxysporum," Transgenic Research vol. 18, pp. 757-67. To see our report on this study, click here.

Li, X., T. Higgins, and W. Bryden (2006). "Biological Response of Broiler Chickens Fed Peas (Pisum sativum L.) Expressing the Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Alpha-Amylase Inhibitor Transgene," J. Sci. Food Agric. vol. 86, pp. 1900-7. To see our report on this study, click here.

Lindgren, L. O., K. G. Stålberg, and A.-S. Höglund (2003). "Seed-Specific Overexpression of an Endogeneous Arabidopsis Phytoene Synthase Gene Results in Delayed Germination and Increased Levels of Carotenoids, Chlorophyll, and Abscisic Acid," Plant Physiology vol. 132, pp. 779-85. To see our report on this study, click here.

Lu, B.-R. and A. A. Snow (2005). "Gene Flow from Genetically Modified Rice and Its Environmental Consequences," BioScience vol. 55, pp. 669-78 (review article). To see our report on this study, click here.

Lu, J., J. Li, Y. Furuya, G. Yoshizaki et al. (2009). "Efficient Productivity and Lowered Nitrogen and Phosphorus Discharge Load from GH-Transgenic Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) under Visual Satiation Feeding," Aquaculture vol. 293, pp. 241-7. To see our report on this study, click here.

Ma, B. L. and K. D. Subedi (2005). "Development, Yield, Grain Moisture, and Nitrogen Uptake of Bt Corn Hybrids and Their Conventional Near-Isolines," Field Crops Research vol. 93, pp. 199-211. To see our report on this study, click here.

Makarevitch, I., S. K. Svitashev, and D. A. Somers (2003). "Complete Sequence Analysis of Transgene Loci From Plants Transformed Via Microprojectile Bombardment," Plant Molecular Biology vol. 52, pp. 421-32. To see our report on this study, click here.

Malatesta, M., C. Caporaloni, S. Gavaudan, M.B.L. Rocchi et al. (2002). "Ultrastructural Morphometrical and Immunocytochemical Analyses of Hepatocyte Nuclei from Mice Fed on Genetically Modified Soybean," Cell Structure and Function vol. 27, pp. 173-80. To see our report on this study, click here.

Masci, S., R. D'Ovidio, F. Scossa, C. Patacchini et al. (2003). "Production and Characterization of a Transgenic Bread Wheat Line Over-Expressing a Low-Molecular-Weight Glutenin Subunit Gene," Molecular Breeding vol. 12, pp. 209-22. ). To see our report on this study, click here.

Means, N. E. and R. J. Kremer (2007). "Influence of Soil Moisture on Root Colonization of Glyphosate-treated Soybean by Fusarium Species," Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis vol. 38, pp. 1713-20. To see our report on this study, click here.

Misawa, N., K. Masamoto, T. Hori, T. Ohtani et al. (1994). "Expression of an Erwinia Phytoene Desaturase Gene not only Confers Multiple Resistance to Herbicides Interfering with Carotenoid Biosynthesis but also Alters Xanthophyll Metabolism in Transgenic Plants," The Plant Journal vol. 6, pp. 481-9. To see our report on this study, click here.

Morandin, L. A., and M. L. Winston (2005). "Wild Bee Abundance and Seed Production in Conventional, Organic, and Genetically Modified Canola," Ecological Applications vol. 15, pp. 871-81. To see our report on this study, click here.

Morisset, D., T. Demsar, K. Gruden, J. Vojvoda et al. (2009). "Detection of Genetically Modified Organisms--Closing the Gaps," Nature Biotechnology vol. 27, pp. 700-1. To see our report on this study, click here.

Morton, R. L., H. E. Schroeder, K. S. Bateman, M. J. Chrispeels et al. (2000). "Bean Alpha-Amylase Inhibitor 1 in Transgenic Peas (Pisum sativum) Provides Complete Protection from Pea Weevil (Bruchus pisorum) under Field Conditions," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences vol. 97, pp. 3820-5. To see our report on this study, click here.

Müller, K., X. He, R. Fischer, and D. Prüfer (2006). "Constitutive knox1 Gene Expression in Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale, Web.) Changes Leaf Morphology from Simple to Compound," Planta vol. 224, pp. 1023-7. To see our report on this study, click here.

Nandula,V. K., K. N. Reddy, S. O. Duke, and D.H. Poston (2005). "Glyphosate-Resistant Weeds: Current Status and Future Outlook," Outlooks in Pest Management vol. 16, pp. 183-7. To see our report on this study, click here.

Netherwood, T., S. M. Martin-Orue, A. G. O'Donnell, S. Gockling et al. (2004). "Assessing the Survival of Transgenic Plant DNA in the Human Gastrointestinal Tract," Nature Biotechnology vol. 22, pp. 204-9. To see our report on this study, click here.

Olsen, K. M., J. C. Daly, H. E. Holt, and E. J. Finnegan (2005). "Season-Long Variation in Expression of Cry1Ac Gene and Efficacy of Bacillus thruingiensis Toxin in Transgenic Cotton Against Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)," Journal of Economic Entomology vol. 93, pp. 1007-17. To see our report on this study, click here.

Owen, M. D. K. and I. A. Zelaya (2005). "Herbicide-Resistant Crops and Weed Resistance to Herbicides," Pest Management Science vol. 61, pp. 301-11. To see our report on this study, click here.

Pappinen, A., Y. Degefu, L. Syrjala, K. Keinonen et al. (2002). "Transgenic Silver Birch (Betula pendula) Expressing Sugarbeet Chitinase 4 Shows Enhanced Resistance to Pyrenopeziza betulicola," Plant Cell Reports vol. 20, pp. 1046-51. To see our report on this study, click here.

Pasonen, H.-L., S.-K. Seppanen, Y. Degefu, A. Rytkonen et al. (2004). "Field Performance of Chitinase Transgenic Silver Birches (Betula pendula): Resistance to Fungal Diseases," Theoretical and Applied Genetics vol. 109, pp. 562-70. To see our report on this study, click here.

Pine, W. A., R. Viator, J. W. Wilcut, K. L. Edmisten et al. (2002). "Reproductive Abnormalities in Glyphosate-resistant Cotton Caused by Lower CP4-EPSPS Levels in the Male Reproductive Tissue," Weed Science vol. 50, pp. 438-47. To see our report on this study, click here.

Pline-Srnic, W. A., K. L. Edmisten, J. W. Wilcut, R. Wells et al. (2004). "Effect of Glyphosate on Fruit Retention, Yield, and Fiber Quality of Glyphosate Resistant Cotton," Journal of Cotton Science vol. 8, pp. 24-32. To see our report on this study, click here.

Poerschmann, J., A. Gathmann, J. Augustin, U. Langer et al. (2005). "Molecular Composition of Leaves and Stems of Genetically Modified Bt and Near-Isogenic Non-Bt Maize--Characterization of Lignin Patterns," J. Environ. Quality vol. 34, pp. 1508-18. To see our report on this study, click here.

Prasifka, P. L., R. Hellmich, J. Prasifka, and L. Lewis (2007). "Effects of CrylAb-Expressing Corn Anthers on the Movement of Monarch Butterfly Larvae," Environmental Entomology vol. 36, pp. 228-33. To see our report on this study, click here.

Prescott, V. E., P. M. Campbell, A. Moore, J. Mattes et al. (2005). "Transgenic Expression of Bean Alpha-Amylase Inhibitor in Peas Results in Altered Structure and Immunogenicity," Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry vol. 53, pp. 9023-30. To see our report on this study, click here.

Presting, G. G., O. P. Smith, and C. R. Brown (1995). "Resistance to Potato Leafroll Virus Transformed with the Coat Protein Gene or With Vector Control Constructs," Phytopathology vol. 85, pp. 436-42. To see our report on this study, click here.

Pursel, V. G., C. A. Pinkert, K. F. Miller, D. J. Bolt et al. (1989). "Genetic Engineering of Livestock," Science vol. 244, pp. 1281-8. To see our report on this study, click here.

Pursel, V. G., R. J. Wall, M. B. Solomon, D. J. Bolt et al. (1997). "Transfer of an Ovine Metallothionein-Ovine Growth Hormone Fusion Gene into Swine," Journal of Animal Science vol. 75, pp. 2208-14. To see our report on this study, click here.

Ramesh, S. A., S. Choimes, and D. P. Schachtman (2004). "Over-Expression of an Arabidopsis Zinc Transporter in Hordeum vulgare Increases Short-Term Zinc Uptake after Zinc Deprivation and Seed Zinc Content," Plant Molecular Biology vol. 54, pp. 373-85. click here.

Ray, H., M. Yu, P. Auser, L. Blahut-Beatty et al. (2003). "Expression of Anthocyanins and Proanthocyanidins after Transformation of Alfalfa with Maize Lc," Plant Physiology vol. 132, pp. 1448-63. To see our report on this study, click here.

Reddy, M. S. S., F. Chen, G. Shadle, L. Jackson et al. (2005). "Targeted Down-regulation of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes for Forage Quality Improvement in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences vol. 102, pp. 16573-8. To see our report on this study, click here.

Reichman, J., L. Watrud, E. Lee, C. Burdick, et al. (2006). "Establishment of Transgenic Herbicide-Resistant Creeping Bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) in Nonagronomic Habitats," Molecular Ecology vol. 15, pp. 4243-55. To see our report on this study, click here.

Roessner, U., A. Luedemann, D. Brust, O. Fiehn et al. (2001). "Metabolic Profiling Allows Comprehensive Phenotyping of Genetically or Environmentally Modified Plant Systems," The Plant Cell vol. 13, pp. 11-29. To see our report on this study, click here.

Rosi-Marshall, E. J., J. L. Tank, T. V. Royer, M. R. Whiles, et al. (2007). "Toxins in Transgenic Crop Byproducts May Affect Headwater Stream Ecosystems," PNAS vol. 104, pp. 16204-8. To see our report on this study, click here.

Sagstad, A., M. Sanden, O. Haugland, A.-C. Hansen et al. (2007). "Evaluation of Stress- and Immune-Response Biomarkers in Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar L., Fed Different Levels of Genetically Modified Maize (Bt Maize), Compared With its Near-Isogenic Parental Line and a Commercial Suprex Maize," Journal of Fish Diseases vol. 30, pp. 201-12. To see our report on this study, click here.

Saxena, D. and G. Stotzky (2001). "Bt Corn has a Higher Lignin Content than Non-Bt Corn," American Journal of Botany vol. 88: 1704-6. To see our report on this study, click here.

Schätzl, A. (2007). "Nicht Beabsichtigte Effekte von Gentechnischen Veränderungen bei Tomaten (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)." [Unintended Effects of Genetic Modifications of Tomatoes], Diploma Thesis, Fachhochschule Weihenstephan, Germany. To see our report on this study, click here.

Schroeder, H. E., S. Gollasch, A. Moore, L. M. Tabe et al. (1995). "Bean Alpha-Amylase Inhibitor Confers Resistance to the Pea Weevil (Bruchus pisorum) in Transgenic Peas (Pisum sativum L.)," Plant Physiology vol. 107, pp. 1233-9. To see our report on this study, click here.

Shadle, G., F. Chen, M. S. S. Reddy, L. Jackson et al. (2007). "Down-regulation of Hydroxycinnamoyl CoA: Shikimate Hydroxycinnamoyl Transferase in Transgenic Alfalfa Affects Lignification, Development and Forage Quality," Phytochemistry vol. 68, pp. 1521-9. To see our report on this study, click here.

Shamay, A., V. G. Pursel, E. Wilkinson, R. J. Wall et al. (1992). "Expression of the Whey Acidic Protein in Transgenic Pigs Impairs Mammary Development," Transgenic Research vol. 1, pp. 124-32. To see our report on this study, click here.

Shamay, A., S. Solinas, V. G. Pursel, R. A. McKnight et al. (1991). "Production of the Mouse Whey Acidic Protein in Transgenic Pigs During Lactation," Journal of Animal Science vol. 69, pp. 4552-62. To see our report on this study, click here.

Shewmaker, C., J. A. Sheehy, M. Daley, S. Colburn et al. (1999). "Seed-specific Overexpression of Phytoene Synthase: Increase in Carotenoids and Other Metabolic Effects," The Plant Journal vol. 20, pp. 401-12. To see our report on this study, click here.

Shu, Q., H. Cui, G. Ye, D. Wu et al. (2002). "Agronomic and Morphological Characterization of Agrobacterium-Transformed Bt Rice Plants," Euphytica vol. 126, pp. 345-52. To see our report on this study, click here.

Skøt, L., E. Timms, L. Mytton (1994). "The Effect of Toxin-Producing Rhizobium Strains on Larvae of Sitona flavescens Feeding on Legume Roots and Nodules," Plant Soil vol. 163, pp. 141-50. To see our report on this study, click here.

Snow, A. A., B. Andersen, and R. Bagger Jorgensen (1999). "Costs of Transgenic Herbicide Resistance Introgressed from Brassica napus into Weedy B. rapa," Molecular Ecology vol. 8, pp. 605-15. To see our report on this study, click here.

Snow A. A., D. Pilson, L. H. Rieseberg, M. J. Paulsen et al. (2003). "A Bt Transgene Reduces Herbivory and Enhances Fecundity in Wild Sunflowers," Ecological Applications vol. 13(2), pp. 279-86. To see our report on this study, click here.

Stevens, E. D., A. Sutterlin, and T. Cook (1998). "Respiratory Metabolism and Swimming Performance in Growth Hormone Transgenic Atlantic Salmon," Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences vol. 55, pp. 2028-35. To see our report on this study, click here.

Sundstrom, L. F., M. Lohmus, W. E. Tymchuk, and R. H. Devlin (2007). "Gene-Environment Interactions Influence Ecological Consequences of Transgenic Animals," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences vol. 104, pp. 3889-94. To see our report on this study, click here.

Sundstrom, L. F., M. Lohmus, J. I. Johnsson, and R. H. Devlin (2004). "Growth Hormone Transgenic Salmon Pay for Growth Potential with Increased Predation Mortality," Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, vol. 271, pp. S350-2. To see our report on this study, click here.

Tabashnik, B. E., A. J. Gassmann, D. W. Crowder, and Y. Carriere (2008). "Insect resistance to Bt crops: Evidence Versus Theory," Nature Biotechnology vol. 26, pp. 199-202. To see our report on this study, click here.

Tretheway, R. N., P. Geigenbauer, K. Riedel, M.-R. Hajirezaei et al. (1998). "Combined Expression of Glucokinase and Invertase in Potato Tubers Leads to a Dramatic Reduction in Starch Accumulation and a Stimulation of Glycolysis," The Plant Journal vol. 15, pp. 109-118. To see our report on this study, click here.

Vickers, J. E., C. P .L. Grof, G. D. Bonnett, P. A. Jackson et al. (2005a). "Overexpression of Polyphenol Oxidase in Transgenic Sugarcane Results in Darker Juice and Raw Sugar," Crop Science vol. 45, pp. 354-62. To see our report on this study, click here.

Vickers, J. E., C. P .L. Grof, G. D. Bonnett, P. A. Jackson et al. (2005b). "Effects of Tissue Culture, Biolistic Transformation, and Introduction of PPO and SPS Gene Constructs on Performance of Sugarcane Clones in the Field," Australian Journal of Agricultural Research vol. 56, pp.57-68. To see our report on this study, click here.

Wall, R. J., C. E. Rexroad, Jr., A. Powell, A. Shamay et al. (1996). "Synthesis and Secretion of the Mouse Whey Acidic Protein in Transgenic Sheep," Transgenic Research vol. 5, pp. 67-72. To see our report on this study, click here.

Wang, F., S. Peng, K. Cui et al. (2012). “Field Performance of Bt Transgenic Crops: A Review,” Australian Journal of Crop Science vol. 8, pp. 18-26. To see our report on this study, click here.

Wang, T., L. Lu, C. Zhang, C. Taylor et al. (2003). "Pleiotropic Effects Suppressing Deoxyhypusine Synthase Expression in Arabidopsis thaliana," Plant Molecular Biology vol. 52, pp. 1223-35. To see our report on this study, click here.

Wang, T., C. Zhang, W. Wu, L. Nowack, et al. (2005). "Antisense Suppression of Deoxyhypusine Synthase in Tomato Delays Fruit Softening and Alters Growth and Development," Plant Physiology vol. 138, pp. 1372-82. To see our report on this study, click here.

Warwick, S. I., A. Legere, M.-J. Simard, and T. James (2007). "Do Escaped Transgenes Persist in Nature? The Case of an Herbicide Resistance Transgene in Weedy Brassica rapa population," Molecular Ecology doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294x.2007.03567.x To see our report on this study, click here.

Watrud, L., E. Lee, A. Fairbrother, C. Burdick, et al. (2004). “Evidence for Landscape-level, Pollen-mediated Gene Flow from Genetically Modified Creeping Bentgrass with CP4 EPSPS as a Marker,” PNAS vol. 101, pp. 14533-8. To see our report on this study, click here.

www.weedscience.org: This website tracks and documents herbicide-resistant weed species.

Yabor, L., M. Arzola, C. Aragón, M. Hernández et al. (2006). "Biochemical Side Effects of Genetic Transformation of Pineapple," Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult vol 86, pp. 63-7. To see our report on this study, click here.

Zapiola, M., C. Campbell, M. Butler, and C. Mallory-Smith (2008). "Escape and Establishment of Transgenic Glyphosate-resistant Creeping Bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) in Oregon, USA: A 4-year Study," Journal of Applied Ecology doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2007.01430.x To see our report on this study, click here.

Zelaya, I. A., M. D. K. Owen and M. J. VanGessel (2007). "Transfer of Glyphosate Resistance: Evidence of Hybridization in Conyza (Asteraceae)," American Journal of Botany vol. 94, pp. 660-73. To see our report on this study, click here.

Zhou, F., J. A. Badillo-Corona, D. Karcher, N. Gonzalez-Rabade et al. (2008). "High-level Expression of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Antigens from the Tobacco and Tomato Plastid Genomes," Plant Biotechnology Journal vol. 6, pp. 897-913. click here.

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