We include in this bibliography publications that present overviews
of genetic engineering with information and references concerning
unintended, nontarget effects of genetic manipulation. The publications
are written from a variety of perspectives, both in relation to content
(e.g. health concerns or environmental impact) and to author assessments
of the importance of unintended effects.
To browse or search our reports on unintended effects,
To see a bibliography of the articles cited in these reports,
Affifi, R. (2016). “The Semiosis of ‘Side Effects’ in Genetic
Interventions.” Biosemiotics, pp. 1-20.
Andow, D. A. and A. Hilbeck (2004). "Science-based Risk Assessment for
Non-target Effects of Transgenic Crops." BioScience vol. 54,
Benbrook, C. M. (2004). "Genetically Engineered Crops and Pesticide
Use in the United States: The First Nine Years," BioTech InfoNet
Technical Paper #7.
Cadeira, A. L. and S. O. Duke (2006). "The Current Status and
Environmental Impacts of Glyphosate-Resistant Crops: A Review," Journal
of Environmental Quality vol. 35, pp. 1633-58.
Cellini, F., A. Chesson, I. Colquhoun, A. Constable et al. (2004).
"Unintended Effects and Their Detection in Genetically Modified Crops,"
Food and Chemical Toxicology vol. 42, pp. 1089-1125.
Clark, E. A. (2006). "Environmental Risks of Genetic Engineering,"
Euphytica vol. 148, pp. 47-60.
Cleveland D. A. and D. Solieri (2005). "Rethinking the Risk Management
Process for Genetically Engineered Crop Varieties in Small-scale,
Traditionally Based Agricutlture," Ecology and Society vol. 10,
issue 1, article 9. Available online:
Coalition for a GM-free India (2013). Adverse Impacts of Transgenic
Crops/Food. Second Edition. Available online:
Dunfield, K. E. and J. J. Germida (2004). "Impact of Genetically Modified
Crops on Soil and Plant-Associated Microbial Communities," Journal
of Environmental Quality vol. 33, pp. 806-815.
Filipecki, M. and S. Malepszy (2006). "Unintended Consequences of Plant
Transformation: A Molecular Insight," Journal of Applied Genetics
vol. 47, pp. 277-86.
Flachowsky G., K. Aulrich, H. Böhme, and I. Halle (2007). "Studies
on Feeds from Genetically Modified Plants (GMP) - Contributions
to Nutritional and Safety Assessment, " Animal Feed Science and
Technology vol. 133, pp. 2-30.
Freese, W. and D. Schubert (2004). "Safety Testing and Regulation of
Genetically Engineered Foods," Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering
Reviews vol. 21, pp. 299-324.
Gepts, P. (2002). "A Comparison Between Crop Domestication, Classical
Plant Breeding, and Genetic Engineering," Crop Science vol. 41,
Gurian-Sherman, D. (2004). A Look at the Unintended Effects of
Genetically Engineering Food Plants. Re: the National Academy Sciences
Report Unintended Effects. Briefing Paper. Washington, DC: The Center
for Food Safety.
Gurian-Sherman, D. (2006). Contaminating the Wild? Gene Flow from
Experimental Field Trials of Genetically Engineered Crops to Related
Wild Plants. Washington, D.C.: Center for Food Safety.
Halsberger, A. G. (2003). "Codex Guidelines for GM Foods Include the
Analysis of Unintended Effects," Nature Biotechnology vol. 21,
Kuiper, H A., G. A. Kleter, H. Noteborn and E. J. Kok (2001). "Assessment
of the Food Safety Issues Related to Genetically Modified Foods," The
Plant Journal vol. 27, pp. 503-28.
Larkin, P. and G. G. Harrigan (2007). "Opportunities and Surprises
in Crops Modified by Transgenic Technology: Metabolic Engineering of
Benzylisoquinoline Alkaloid, Gossypol and Lysine Biosynthetic Pathways,"
Metabolomics vol. 3, pp. 371-82.
Latham, J. R., A. K. Wilson, R. A. Steinbrecher et al. (2006). "The
Mutational Consequences of Plant Transformation," Journal of
Biomedicine and Biotechnology Article ID: 25376, pp. 1-7.
Mallory-Smith C. and M. Zapiola (2008). "Review: Gene Flow from
Glyphosate-Resistant Crops," Pest Management Science DOI:
Marvier, M. (2001). "Ecology of Transgenic Crops," American
Scientist vol. 89, pp. 160-67.
Marvier, M., C. McCreedy, J. Regetz, and P.Kareiva (undated). Nontarget
effects of Bt crops database. http://delphi.nceas.ucsb.edu/btcrops.
Matzke, M. A., M. F. Mette and A. J. M. Matzke (2000). "Transgene
Silencing by the Host Genome Defense: Implications for the Evolution
of Epigenetic Control Mechanisms in Plants and Vertebrates," Plant
Molecular Biology vol. 43, pp. 401-15.
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (2016).
Genetically Engineered Crops: Experiences and Prospects.
Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
National Research Council and Institute of Medicine of the National
Academies (2004). Safety of Genetically Engineered Food: Approaches
to Assessing Unintended Health Effects. Washington, DC: The National
Pilson, D. and H. R. Prendeville (2004). "Ecological Effects of Transgenic
Crops and the Escape of Transgenes into Wild Populations," Annu. Rev
Ecol. Evol. Syst. Vol. 35, pp. 149-74.
Pryme, I. F. and R. Lembcke (2003). "In Vivo Studies on Possible Health
Consequences of Genetically Modified Food and Feed-With Particular Regard
to Ingredients Consisting of Genetically Modified Plant Materials,"
Nutrition and Health Vol. 17, pp. 1-8.
Rischer, H. and K.-M. Oksman-Caldentey (2007). "Unintended Effects in
Genetically Modified Crops: Revealed by Metabolomics?" Trends in
Biotechnologyvol. 24, pp. 102-4.
Royal Society of Canada (2001): Elements of Precaution: Recommendations
for the Regulation of Food Biotechnology in Canada. Ottawa.
Shirai, Y. (2006). "Nontarget Effects of Transgenic
Insecticidal Crops: Overview to Date and Future Challenges,"
Jpn. J. Appl. Entomol. Zool. Vol. 51, pp. 165-86. [Article in
Japanese; numerous references in English.]
Smith, J. (2007). Genetic Roulette: The Documented Health Risks of
Genetically Engineered Foods. Fairfield, IA: Yes! Books.
Snow. A. A., D. A. Andow, P. Gepts, E. M. Hallerman et al. (2005).
"Genetically Engineered Organisms and the Environment: Current Status
and Recommendations," Ecological Applications vol. 15, pp. 377-404.
(Position paper of the Ecological Society of America.)
Spök, A., H. Hofer, R. Valenta., K. Kienzl-Plochberger et
al. (2001). Toxicological and Allergological safety evaluation of
GMO. English summary of Monograph 109, Report by Federal Environment
Agency, Vienna, Austria.
Traynor, P. L. and J. H. Westwood, Eds. (1999). Proceedings of a
Ecological Effects of Pest Resistance Genes in Managed Ecosystems.
Blacksburg, VA: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
Link no longer available: http://www.isb.vt.edu/cfdocs/proceedings.cfm.
Wilson, A. J. Latham, and R. Steinbrecher (2004). "Genome Scrambling-Myth
or Reality?" EcoNexus Technical Report October 2004.
Wilson, Allison K., Jonathan R. Latham and Ricarda A. Steinbrecher (2006).
"Transformation-induced Mutations in Transgenic Plants: Analysis
and Biosafety Implications," Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering
Reviews vol. 23, pp. 209-37. Link no longer available:
Wolfenbarger, L. (2003). Annotated Bibliographies for
Environmental/Ecological Impacts of Transgenic Organisms: Animals,
Microorganisms, Plants I - Gene Flow, Plants II - Unintended Effects,
Plants III - Resistance Management. Link no longer available: